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This blog is created by 2 individuals who are passionate to teach the world about the top-notch knowledge of Computer Graphics. We both are learners and working professionals, we are together creating this blog for the whole community so that each and everyone can leverage the knowledge of Computer Graphics and it's related things.
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Bresenham's Line Drawing Derivation

Bresenham's Line Drawing Algorithm Derivation
Bresenham Line drawing algorithm is used to determine closest points to be illuminated on the screen to form a line.

As we know a line is made by joining 2 points, but in a computer screen, a line is drawn by illuminating the pixels on the screen.

(Here pixel (1,2), (3,1) and (5,5) are illuminated and others are non-illuminated) A line from pixel (2,2) to (7,5) will be shown like this on the screen.

The slope of a line plays a major role in the line equation that's why Bresenham line drawing algorithm calculates the equation according to the slope of the line.

The slope of the line can be greater than 1 (m>1) or less than or equal to 1 (m<=1).
Now enough talking let's derive the equations.


Let's say we want to draw a line on the screen.
so, to draw a line we have to calculate the points or pixels to be illuminated on the screen.

Now while drawing a line a sometimes it passes through 2 pixels at the same time then we …

Bresenham's Circle Drawing Algorithm

Bresenham’s Circle Drawing Algorithm
A circle is made up of 8 Equal Octets so we need to find only coordinates of any one octet rest we can conclude using that coordinates.
We took octet-2. Where X and Y will represent the pixel Let us make a function Circle() with parameters coordinates of Centre (Xc,Yc) and pixel point (X,Y) that will plot the pixel on screen.

We will find pixels assuming that Centre is at Origin (0,0) then we will add the coordinates of centre to corresponding X and Y while drawing circle on screen.
Circle (Xc,Yc,X,Y){
Plot (Y+Xc , X+Yc)……Octet-1 Plot (X+Xc , Y+Yc)……Octet-2 Plot (-X+Xc , Y+Yc)……Octet-3 Plot (-Y+Xc , X+Yc)…..Octet-4 Plot (-Y+Xc , -X+Yc)……Octet-5

Bresenham's Circle Drawing Derivation

Bresenham's Circle Drawing Algorithm Derivation
Bresenham circle drawing algorithm is used to determine the next pixel of screen to be illuminated while drawing a circle by determining the closest nearby pixel.
Let us first take a look how a circle is drawn on a pixel screen
(this is how pixel graph is represented)
As Circles are symmetrical so the values of y-intercept and x-intercept are are same if circle's Center coordinates are at Origin (0,0).

Here,  Radius = OA = r Due to symmetrical property of Circle we don't need to calculate all the pixels of all the octets and quadrants We need to find the pixels of only one octet, rest we can conclude through this.

Lets take the Octet 2 which is in quadrant 1 here both x and y are positive here the initial pixel would be (0,y) coordinate

At point R both the value of both x and y coordinates would be same as R is at same distance of Both X and Y axis.

Derivation of Bresenham circle algorithm:

Mid Point Circle Drawing Derivation

Mid Point Circle Drawing Derivation (Algorithm) The mid point circle algorithm is used to determine the pixels needed for rasterizing a circle while drawing a circle on a pixel screen. In this technique algorithm determines the mid point between the next 2 possible consecutive pixels and then checks whether the mid point in inside or outside the circle and illuminates the pixel accordingly.

This is how a pixel screen is represented: A circle is highly symmetrical and can be divided into 8 Octets on graph. Lets take center of circle at Origin i.e(0,0) :

We need only to conclude the pixels of any one of the octet rest we can conclude because of symmetrical properties of circle.

Let us Take Quadrant 1: 
Radius = OR = r Radius = x intercept = y intercept At point R coordinate of x = coordinate ofyor we can sayx=y let us take Octet 2 of quadrant 1 here first pixel would be (0,y) here value of yintercept=